Image Gallery

Welcome to the COMSOL Image Gallery. The simulation images on this page are available for editors and journalists to use in appropriate articles. The phrase "Image made using COMSOL MultiphysicsĀ® and provided courtesy of COMSOLĀ®." must appear in the vicinity of every image or at the bottom of the article.

For all other uses you must contact COMSOL directly through www.comsol.com/contact/
or by writing to .


COMSOL Multiphysics Version 4.4

Multiphysics Analysis of a Heating Circuit

Multiphysics Analysis of a Heating Circuit

A model of a heating circuit was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, the AC/DC Module, the Heat Transfer Module, and the Structural Mechanics Module. Results show the DC-induced Joule heating, heat transfer, and structural mechanics analysis of the thin resistive layer on a solid glass plate. When multiphysics phenomena such as thermal expansion is added to a model, the coupled physics is defined under the Multiphysics node in the Model Tree.

Mixer Module

Mixing Non-Newtonian Fluids

Mixing Non-Newtonian Fluids

The Mixer Module comes with a Frozen Rotor feature that saves you computational time and resources. In this model, the frozen rotor feature is used to simulate the mixing of a non-Newtonian fluid. In the plots, arrows represent the direction of flow in the mixer and streamlines represent the velocity.

Non-isothermal Mixing

Non-isothermal Mixing

Heat transfer from the pipes and walls of a mixer is accounted for by using the Rotating Machinery, Non-isothermal flow physics interface in the Mixer Module. The temperature distribution in the mixer is shown here in a slice plot in addition to velocity streamlines and arrows.

Turbulent Mixer with Free Surface

Turbulent Mixer with Free Surface

This model of a turbulent mixer includes two rods and a three-bladed impeller. The Rotating Machinery, Turbulent Flow physics interface from the Mixer Module was used to simulate this application. In the plot, the blue surface at top represents the deformation of the free surface and a pressure contour is shown on the front blade. The center slice shows the direction and magnitude of the flow velocity.

Electrical Applications

Frequency Selective Surfaces

Frequency Selective Surfaces

A model of a frequency selective surface with periodic complementary split ring resonators was implemented using the RF Module. The actual model includes a single split ring resonator with RF input/output ports represented in the figure by red squares. A Periodic boundary condition is used to simulate the periodically replicating resonator structure. The results show that only signals around the center frequency can pass through the surface layer.

Antenna Array for GPS Applications

Antenna Array for GPS Applications

A probe-fed corner-truncated microstrip patch antenna was simulated using the RF module. Results show right-hand circular polarization with a low axial ratio around the GPS frequency range.

Modeling of Pyramidal RF Absorbers

Modeling of Pyramidal RF Absorbers

A microwave absorber was simulated as an infinite 2D array of pyramidal lossy structures using the RF Module. The lossy material was designed to represent the electromagnetic properties of radiation-absorbent materials (RAM) such as conductive carbon-loaded foam.

Substrate Integrated Waveguides

Substrate Integrated Waveguides

Model of leaky waves from a slot array on the top surface of a surface integrated waveguide (SIW) was implemented using the RF Module. SIW can be used in antenna applications where the leaky waves can be directed in a predetermined direction by changing the operating frequency.

RF MEMS Switch

RF MEMS Switch

A model of an RF MEMS switch comprised of a thin micromechanical bridge suspended over a dielectric layer was developed using the MEMS Module. Contact force was simulated using the penalty method. The plot shows both the contact force and displacement.

MEMS Micromirror

MEMS Micromirror

A model of an electrostatically controlled micromirror was developed using the MEMS Module with the large deformation and initial stress features. The plot shows the curvature or displacement in the prestressed plated device.

Mechanical Applications

Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger

Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger

This model was developed using the Heat Transfer Module and simulates a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Heat exchange occurs between the air-filled shell and water flowing in the inner pipes. The results show the temperature distribution, pressure, and flow velocity inside the vessel.

Continuous Casting

Continuous Casting

This model, developed using the Heat Transfer Module, simulates the phase change in a metal rod after it is extruded in a molten state and cooled with water until solidification occurs. The study analyzes heat transfer from the liquid to the solid state, and accounts for the energy balance in the system.

Tumor Ablation

Tumor Ablation

This simulation of tumor ablation was developed using the Heat Transfer Module. The localized heating of malignant tissue is achieved through the insertion of a four-armed electric probe. This example couples the bioheat and electric field equations, and models the temperature field in the tissue.

Contact Analysis of a Snap Hook

Contact Analysis of a Snap Hook

This model of a fastener was developed using the Structural Mechanics Module and the Nonlinear Structural Materials Module in COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation results show the von Mises stress in the plastic under a prescribed displacement. Such fasteners are common in the automotive industry.

Tube Connection with Prestressed Bolts

Tube Connection with Prestressed Bolts

A geometry of a flange with four prestressed bolts was imported using the CAD Import Module. The assembly is subjected to an external bending moment that is modeled using the Structural Mechanics Module. A contact force acting between the washers under the bolt heads and the flange is also considered. Results show how the stress state in the flange and bolts varies with the applied load.

Hyperelastic Seal

Hyperelastic Seal

This model was developed using the Nonlinear Structural Materials Module, as well as the Solid Mechanics physics interface from the Structural Mechanics Module. It simulates the force-deflection relation in the soft rubber seal of a car door. The model uses a hyperelastic material and formulations that account for contact and large deformations. Results show the contact pressure and stress on the seal as the displacement changes.

Point Source Distortion by Jet Flow

Point Source Distortion by Jet Flow

A model of a Gaussian point source in a high-speed jet flow was implemented using the Acoustics Module. Perfectly matched layers were used to simulate an unbounded model for frequency domain analysis. The simulation results show that the acoustic pressure waves are highly influenced by the jet flow.

Fluid Flow Applications

Solar Panel in Periodic Flow

Solar Panel in Periodic Flow

This simulation of the flow past and through a series of solar panels was developed using the CFD Module and the Structural Mechanics Module. The streamlines depict the direction and magnitude of the periodic flow. Arrows show the formation of a large vortex behind the panel. The surface plot show the structural displacement due to the wind load.

Inkjet Nozzle

Inkjet Nozzle

This model uses the Laminar Two-Phase Flow, Level Set physics interface from the Microfluidics Module. It simulates the trajectory and velocity of an ink droplet traveling through the air after being ejected from a nozzle. The interface between the air and the ink is tracked using the level set method. The results show a plot of the velocity of the air surrounding the droplet.

Pore-Scale Flow

Pore-Scale Flow

A model of flow in a porous medium was created by importing electron microscopy images into COMSOL Multiphysics to accurately reproduce a porous structure. The Creeping Flow physics interface from the Subsurface Flow Module was used to solve the flow in the interstices of the porous medium. This method enables the simulation of particulate and colloid movement through subsurface variable-pore geometries.

Chemical Applications

Hydrodealkylation in a Membrane Reactor

Hydrodealkylation in a Membrane Reactor

Simulation of the hydrodealkylation process in a membrane reactor was performed using the Plug-flow reactor type in the Reaction Engineering physics interface available with the Chemical Reaction Engineering Module. In the model, hydrogen is continuously supplied to the reactor through a porous membrane. External data was used to define the physical and thermodynamic properties of the model.

Electrokinetic Valve

Electrokinetic Valve

This model of an electrokinetic valve is based on pressure driven flow and electrophoresis in a 3D microchannel system. The model was developed using the Microfluidics Module. The simulation shows the time-dependent transfer of ions for different configurations of the electric field.

Li-ion Battery Pack

Li-ion Battery Pack

This simulation of a lithium-ion battery pack was developed using physics from the Batteries and Fuel Cells Module and the Heat Transfer Module. The study couples an electrochemical model with thermal analysis to determine the temperature field in the pack.

Electrodeposition on a Car Door

Electrodeposition on a Car Door

This model, developed using the Electrodeposition Module, shows deposited paint thickness on an electrocoated car door. The simulation results show the total electrode thickness change and the electrolyte potential at t=120 s.

Mitigate Corrosion in a Ship Hull

Mitigate Corrosion in a Ship Hull

This model of a ship's hull with a coated propeller was developed using the Corrosion Module. The results show the electrolyte potential on the surface of the hull during impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP). This technique is often used to mitigate corrosion by applying an external current to a surface, which polarizes it and lowers the electric potential.

Atmospheric Corrosion

Atmospheric Corrosion

This model simulates atmospheric galvanic corrosion of an aluminum alloy in contact with steel using the Corrosion Module. The electrolyte film thickness depends on the relative humidity of the surrounding air and the salt load density of NaCl crystals on the metal surfaces. The current densities are for a range of relative humidity values and salt load densities.

Glucose Sensor

Glucose Sensor

A model of an electrochemical glucose sensor was developed using the Electroanalysis physics interface available in the Electrochemistry Module. The diffusion of glucose and ferri/ferrocyanide redox mediators occurs in a unit cell above an interdigitated electrode. A linear response is observed over a range of concentrations.

Multipurpose Modules

Ion Funnel

Ion Funnel

This model of an ion funnel was developed using the Particle Tracing Module and the AC/DC Module. The results show the electric potential along the funnel. The particle trajectories are indicated in black, showing positions at several time steps.

Electron Beam Divergence

Electron Beam Divergence

This simulation, developed using the Particle Tracing Module and the AC/DC Module, shows a beam of electrons diverging due to its own space charge. Perturbations to these trajectories affect the space charge distribution. The results depict electric potential of the beam.

Microchannel Dispersion Optimization

Microchannel Dispersion Optimization

This model, developed using the Optimization Module and the Microfluidics Module, studies the dispersion of particles through a curved microchannel in electroosmotic flow (EOF) that has a chemical species detector downstream of the curve. Geometric optimization was carried out to minimize the dispersion that occurs due to the curved walls.

Optimization of a Catalytic Microreactor

Optimization of a Catalytic Microreactor

Simulation results show the optimal catalyst distribution in a microreactor where a reactant undergoes chemical reaction as it comes in contact with the porous catalyst. The simulation accounts for the fluid dynamics of the solution pumped through the catalytic bed, and the mass transport of the reactant and its reaction rate. The optimal catalyst distribution is found by maximizing the reactant conversion for a given total pressure difference across the bed.